The Chinese Government published its first Africa policy paper in 2006. Over the past decade, the policy has been carried out fully and effectively, playing an important guiding role in the all-round development of China-Africa relations. This year marks the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC). The Second FOCAC Summit will be held in South Africa in December. As the first China-Africa summit to be hosted on the African continent, it will be a landmark event conducive to strengthening China-Africa unity and spearheading China-Africa cooperation.
Against this backdrop, the Chinese government wishes, with release of its second Africa policy paper, to further clarify China's determination and goodwill to develop friendly and cooperative relations with Africa and expound the new vision, approach and measures of China's Africa policy under the new circumstances with the aim of guiding the multi-faceted exchanges and cooperation between China and Africa in the years to come.
Part I. Establishing and Developing Comprehensive Strategic and Cooperative China-Africa Partnership and Consolidating and Bolstering the Community of Shared Future between China and Africa
China and Africa have always belonged to a community of shared future. Over the past five decades and more, they have always been good friends who stand together through thick and thin, good partners who share weal and woe, and good brothers who fully trust each other despite changes in the international landscape. The traditional friendship between China and Africa is deeply rooted in people's minds and has become an invaluable asset for both. China and Africa have long valued sincerity, friendship and equality, which constitute the underlying rationale for China-Africa relations to grow stronger with time. Based on this tradition, China and Africa will be committed to mutually beneficial cooperation and common development under the new circumstances, adding new substance and injecting inexhaustible impetus to China-Africa relations.
In 2006, the Chinese government proposed a new type of China-Africa strategic partnership featuring political equality and mutual trust, economic win-win cooperation and cultural exchange. In the past decade, China and Africa jointly formulated and implemented a series of major measures to deepen cooperation, which greatly promoted the rapid development of their friendly and cooperative ties across the board. Political mutual trust between China and Africa has been strengthened. Their coordination and cooperation in international and regional affairs have become closer. Their pragmatic cooperation has borne abundant fruit. China has been Africa's largest trading partner since 2009. In 2014, China's trade volume with Africa rose to four times that of 2006. People-to-people and cultural exchanges have flourished with nearly 3 million visits made between China and Africa every year, garnering greater social and popular support for China-Africa friendship. The scope and depth of China-Africa exchanges and cooperation has been unprecedented. China's contribution to Africa's economic growth has significantly increased.
Tremendous changes have taken place in China and Africa in the past decade, with both shouldering new development tasks. China is striving to achieve the "two centenary goals" and realize the Chinese dream of great national renewal in accordance with the strategy of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, comprehensively deepening reform, advancing law-based governance and applying strict party discipline. Africa is committed to accelerating its industrialization and modernization and forging ahead to fulfill the dreams outlined in Agenda 2063. Both the Chinese dream and the African dream aim to enable people to live a more prosperous and happier life.
The development strategies of China and Africa are highly compatible. Given their respective strengths, China and Africa need each other for cooperation and development. Rare historic opportunities for mutually beneficial cooperation and common development have emerged. China's comparative advantages in development experience, applied technology, funds and market can help Africa overcome the two major bottlenecks constraining its development -- backward infrastructure and inadequate professional and skilled personnel. They can also help Africa translate its natural and human resources advantages and potential into a driving force for development and benefits for people's livelihoods, thereby speeding up industrialization and agricultural modernization, and doing a better job in pursuing economic independence as well as self-reliant and sustainable development and achieving lasting peace and stability.
The international situation has undergone dramatic changes over the past decade. The transition to a multi-polar world has gained momentum. The rapid development of emerging markets and developing countries has become an irresistible trend in history, making them a pivotal force for safeguarding world peace and promoting common development. The UN has adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, mandating the realization of inclusive and sustainable development in all countries. Africa has become one of the continents with the fastest economic growth and greatest development potential. It is an important player on the stage of world politics, a new growth pole for the global economy and a center of human civilization with diverse cultures. China has risen to become the world's second largest economy. It is an active player in the current international system that has helped build it and contributed to it. The current global governance system, however, has yet to fully accommodate the changes. There is a need to increase the representation and voice of developing countries including China and African nations in international affairs. China and Africa should make the most of their advantages in political mutual trust and economic complementarity to push for the all-round development of China-Africa cooperation, strengthen South-South cooperation, promote North-South cooperation, and set a good example for the development of a new model of international relations centered on mutually beneficial cooperation.
China-Africa relations have now reached a new historical starting point. Given their shared development tasks, highly compatible strategic interests, and broad prospects for mutually beneficial cooperation, the Chinese and African people will advance side by side with an ever-growing sense of purpose. China is willing to work with African countries to build and develop a China-Africa comprehensive strategic and cooperative partnership featuring political equality and mutual trust, win-win economic cooperation, mutually enriching cultural exchanges, mutual assistance in security, and solidarity and coordination in international affairs. China is devoted, as are African nations, to promoting an all-round development of China-Africa friendly cooperation, working together to pursue development and fulfill dreams, jointly delivering more benefits to Chinese and African people, and making greater contributions to world peace, stability, development and prosperity.
Part II. Upholding the Values of Friendship, Justice and Shared Interests and Adhering to the Principles of Sincerity, Practical Results, Affinity and Good Faith
Enhancing solidarity and cooperation with African countries has always been the cornerstone of China's independent foreign policy of peace, as well as China's firm and longstanding strategic choice. Under the new circumstances, China will adhere to the principles of its Africa policy -- sincerity, practical results, affinity and good faith, uphold the values of friendship, justice and shared interests, and push for new leapfrog growth of its friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation with Africa.
"Sincerity" means China insists on the principles of equality, mutual trust, solidarity and mutual support, and will always be Africa's most trustworthy friend and sincere partner. China respects African countries' independent choice of the way to development as well as their practices and efforts to promote economic and social development and improve people's living standard. It stands ready to exchange governance experience with African countries on the basis of equality and voluntarism, and promote mutual understanding and acceptance of and learning from each other's political system and development path. China has always sincerely supported Africa's development. It never interferes in African countries' internal affairs, never imposes its will on them, and attaches no political strings when providing aid to Africa. On issues involving each other's core interests and major concerns, China will enhance communication and coordination, mutual understanding and mutual support with African countries, and safeguard the common interests of both.
"Practical results" means that China aims to achieve practical and efficient results, seeks cooperation and mutual benefits, upholds the principle of honoring commitments with real actions and results, implements the guidelines and measures for mutually beneficial cooperation with Africa to the letter, and strives to realize the common development of China and Africa while helping Africa achieve independent development. Adhering to the traditional Chinese philosophy of "building a nest to attract the phoenix and teaching people how to fish," China will support African countries' efforts in infrastructure and human resources development to help them overcome these two major bottlenecks that have long been constraining Africa's development, and promote China-Africa industrial alignment and capacity cooperation to facilitate Africa's industrialization and agricultural modernization. China will adhere to the idea of pursuing peace through development and promoting development by maintaining peace, and support Africa's efforts to seek independent and sustainable development, resolve African issues in an African way, and play a more constructive role in regional hotspot issues.
"Affinity" means the hearts of Chinese and African people are connected, and they will live together in harmony, promote inter-cultural dialogue, and enhance exchanges of ideas, policy alignment and mutual understanding to provide a solid popular and social basis for China-Africa friendship. China will strengthen exchanges and cooperation with Africa in education, science, culture, health and other social and cultural fields, expand exchanges between Chinese and African people, increase think tank, university and media exchanges, and support sub-national contacts and cooperation. Chinese and African employees working on each other's soil will be encouraged to get along well with local people, and seek coexistence and common prosperity. The Chinese government encourages Chinese enterprises and citizens in Africa to care more about the well-being of local people and repay local society, create a good environment for the Africans working, studying and living in China, and constantly extend and consolidate the social basis of China-Africa friendship.
"Good faith" means China cherishes good faith and settlement of problems in an appropriate manner. It views and promotes China-Africa relations from strategic and long-term perspectives, and seeks joint efforts with Africa to create a good environment for friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation. China stands ready to strengthen policy coordination and communication with African countries, adheres to the principles of mutual respect and win-win cooperation, faces squarely and sincerely the new developments and problems confronting their relations through equal and friendly coordination, and ensures that both sides benefit from sincere, friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation.
Upholding the values of friendship, justice and shared interests is a hallmark of China's policy toward other developing countries. While valuing friendship and justice as well as shared interests, China places more importance on the former. The core principle is to connect assistance to developing countries, including those in Africa, for their independent and sustainable development with China's own development, achieve win-win cooperation and common development, and promote more balanced, inclusive and sustainable development of the world at large. China will never repeat the past colonial way in its cooperation with Africa and never pursue development at the cost of Africa's natural and ecological environment or long-term interests.
Providing support and assistance to African countries for their independent and sustainable development conforms to the interests of both African people and the people of the entire world, and is the common responsibility of the international community. While engaging in cooperation with Africa, China always respects and protects the fundamental interests of African countries and their people, upholds fairness and seeks justice for Africa. It also pursues mutual benefit and win-win results, and sincerely supports and assists Africa in its efforts to realize peace, stability and development.
The one-China principle is the political precondition and foundation for the establishment and development of China's relations with African countries and regional organizations. The Chinese government appreciates the fact that African countries abide by the one-China principle, support China's reunification, and refuse to have official relations and contacts with Taiwan. China is committed to developing friendly cooperation in an all-round way with all African countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.
China appreciates the constructive actions of the international community to support and assist Africa in realizing lasting peace and sustainable development. It will strengthen coordination and cooperation with other countries as well as international and regional organizations on the basis of the "Africa-proposed, Africa-agreed and Africa-led" principle and with an active, open and inclusive attitude. China will explore tripartite and multilateral cooperation in Africa so as to jointly contribute to peace, stability and development on the continent.
Part III. Promoting the All-Round Development of China-Africa Cooperation
1. Enhancing political mutual trust
(1) Intensifying high-level exchanges
While bringing into play the role of high-level exchanges in providing political guidance, China will maintain the momentum of frequent mutual visits and dialogue between Chinese and African leaders, with a view to facilitating communication on bilateral relations and major issues of common interest, solidifying traditional friendship, and bolstering political mutual trust. China advocates mutual understanding and support on issues involving their respective core interests and major concerns. It calls for safeguarding shared interests, pursuing development together, and deepening cooperation. All these aim to lay a solid political groundwork for the development of bilateral relations between China and individual African countries as well as the overall China-Africa relationship.
(2) Boosting experience sharing in governance
China is of the view that countries should respect and support each other's efforts to explore and improve development paths and political systems suited to their national conditions. It is ready to engage in a variety of experience-sharing programs with African countries. Through these programs, they will draw wisdom from each other's civilizations and development practices, increase exchanges of governance experience, and promote common development in accordance with the principles of communication on an equal footing, mutual learning, and shared progress.
(3) Improving intergovernmental consultation and cooperation mechanisms
China will make the most of the coordinating role of bilateral mechanisms such as political consultations between foreign ministries, joint (mixed) committees on trade and economic cooperation and high-level economic and trade cooperation mechanisms, and mixed committees on science and technology. It will further diversify and improve intergovernmental dialogue and consultation mechanisms to promote China-Africa intergovernmental dialogue and cooperation.
(4) Promoting exchanges in various sectors including those between legislative bodies, consultative bodies, political parties, the military and local governments
In keeping with the purpose of deepening understanding and cooperation with mutual respect, China favors increased multi-level, multi-channel, multi-form and all-dimensional friendly exchanges between the National People's Congress of China and organizations such as the parliaments of African countries and the Pan-African Parliament. These will help further substantiate the China-Africa comprehensive strategic and cooperative partnership.
China stands for expanded and strengthened exchanges between the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and relevant institutions such as African national parliaments, the Pan-African Parliament, the Economic, Social and Cultural Council of the African Union (AU), and the economic and social councils of individual African countries.
The Communist Party of China stands ready to expand and deepen diverse forms of exchanges and cooperation with friendly political parties and organizations in African countries based on the principles of independence, equality, mutual respect and non-interference in each other's internal affairs. It is committed to exploring a new platform for collective communication and dialogue with the aim of enhancing mutual understanding and friendship and deepening exchanges of governance experience. This will also enable them to better understand and recognize each other's governance systems and philosophies, learn from each other, improve governance capacities together and contribute to the development of state-to-state relations.
Efforts will be made to maintain the momentum of mutual visits between Chinese and African military leaders, and push for strengthened policy dialogue and increased exchanges between young officers.
China supports the establishment of an increasing number of twin province/state and twin city relationships between China and African countries in a bid to strengthen ties between Chinese and African local governments and facilitate exchanges and cooperation in local development and administration.
2. Deepening cooperation in international affairs
China will further enhance exchanges and cooperation with African countries in international institutions such as the UN and on other international occasions. It will maintain communication and coordination with African countries on prominent international and regional issues. It stands for mutual understanding and support on major issues concerning their respective state sovereignty, territorial integrity, national dignity and development interests, while safeguarding their shared interests as well as those of developing countries.
China will work in concert with Africa to uphold the international order and system underpinned by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. It is firmly supportive of increasing the representation and voice of developing countries in the international governance system. Supporting comprehensive reform of the UN, China maintains that priority should be given to increasing African countries' representation and voice in the UN Security Council and other UN agencies to address the injustices Africa suffered historically. It is committed, as African nations are, to defending the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, upholding international fairness and justice, and making the world order more just and reasonable.
China calls on the international community to continue to step up the global economic governance reform-in particular, to deliver the promised IMF quota reform as soon as possible-so as to increase the representation and voice of emerging markets and developing countries. It calls for strengthened dialogue between the G20 and Africa and is supportive of Africa' s participation in G20 affairs.
China will join hands with Africa to call on members of the international community to realize that they are all in the same boat and should therefore share rights and responsibilities. In this spirit, it calls for efforts to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit, strengthen all countries' capacities for development, ameliorate the international environment for development, optimize development partnerships and improve development coordination mechanisms. All these aim to achieve balanced, sustainable and inclusive growth, jointly create a path of development that is fair, open, comprehensive and innovative, realize common development and advance the common interests of mankind. China will continue to uphold and advocate the principles such as equality, mutual trust, win-win results, solidarity and cooperation while promoting South-South cooperation at a higher level, in a broader scope and on a larger scale under the new circumstances.
China reaffirms the fundamental role of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the international response to climate change. It agrees to jointly maintain the solidarity of developing countries, while upholding the principles and provisions of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, especially the principles of equity, "common but differentiated responsibilities" and respective capabilities. It is resolved to work for the establishment of an equitable, reasonable, cooperative and mutually beneficial international climate management system, and promote all-round, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC. China has taken note of the progress made in the UN Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa. It agrees to jointly safeguard the interests of developing countries and push for the convention's full and effective implementation.
3. Deepening economic and trade cooperation
(1) Helping boost Africa's industrialization
China will make prioritizing support for Africa's industrialization a key area and a main focus in its cooperation with Africa in the new era. Allowing industrial alignment and capacity cooperation to play a leading role in bringing about overall development will help accelerate the industrialization in Africa, thereby providing a solid foundation for Africa's economic independence as well as self-reliant and sustainable development. In light of their national conditions, development needs and feasible international rules, China will vigorously support the efforts of African countries to improve their "soft" and "hard" environment for investment and development, optimizing laws and regulations on and government services for attracting and protecting foreign investment, and removing the two major bottlenecks impeding development, namely, backward infrastructure and inadequate professional and skilled personnel. Efforts will be made to promote industrial alignment and capacity cooperation between China and African countries in an orderly fashion, with the aim to facilitate Africa's industrialization and economic diversification, and increase the level of production, living standards and employment in African countries. China is supportive of African countries' development of special economic zones, industrial parks and science and technology parks to attract investment and talents. It will guide, encourage and support the efforts of Chinese enterprises to jointly build economic and trade cooperation zones in Africa to serve as important platforms for promoting China-Africa industrial capacity cooperation and attracting more Chinese enterprises to invest in Africa, build production and processing bases and localize their operations in Africa, contribute to the increase of local employment, tax revenue and foreign-exchange income, and promote the transfer of industries and technologies.
While sticking to the values of friendship, justice and shared interests, win-win cooperation, the principles of openness and inclusiveness, and market-based operation, China will give priority to building pilot industrial capacity cooperation demonstration zones in African countries with appropriate conditions. China will work together with chosen African countries to bring into full play their governments' role in guidance, coordination, management and service, increase exchanges of experience in macroeconomic management, and innovate on the cooperation mechanisms in investment protection, finance, taxation, customs, visa, immigration and exchanges of police officers to help African countries enhance capacity building in law enforcement and improve management and services. They will also work in concert to achieve an early harvest in their industrial capacity cooperation, accumulating development and cooperation experience, providing a demonstration effect and playing a leading role in bringing along cooperation with other African countries.
(2) Helping boost Africa's agricultural modernization
China will prioritize support for Africa's agricultural modernization in its cooperation with Africa in the new era, with increased input and expanded cooperation to help African countries resolve the development problem of this basic industry that has a bearing on their national economy and people's livelihoods as well as economic independence. China is willing to share its experience and technology in agricultural development with African countries, and supports their efforts to improve their agricultural technology and techniques to produce and process agricultural, livestock and fishery products. This will help them build an agricultural value chain and increase independent grain production capacity to boost food security, enhance the competitiveness of cotton and other specialty industries in the world, generate more income and improve the livelihood of farmers. China will improve and continue to carry out agricultural technology demonstration projects in Africa, implement the High-Quality and High-Yield Agriculture Demonstration Project, bolster research and development, promotion and extensive use of seeds, send senior agricultural expert teams and agricultural vocational training teacher teams, and expand the scale and effect of training in agricultural management and technology. It will build and improve bilateral mechanisms for agricultural cooperation with Africa, give play to the strengths and roles of each side, and strengthen supervision and evaluation of cooperation projects to increase the quality and level of cooperation. China will encourage and promote China-Africa trade in agricultural products. It will encourage and support Chinese enterprises to engage in crop farming, grain storage, stockbreeding and fishery, and invest in the processing of agricultural products in African countries, helping create more jobs for local people, increase the added value of local products and generate more foreign-exchange income, and boosting Africa's agricultural modernization. China will also help African countries promote irrigation techniques, effectively use water resources, and improve their capacity to prevent floods and combat droughts.
(3) Participating in Africa's infrastructure development across the board
China will encourage and support Chinese enterprises and financial institutions' expanded involvement in infrastructure development in Africa, give full play to the role of policy-based finance, and innovate on investment and financing cooperation models. While sticking to market-oriented operation, as well as the principles of overall cooperation with emphasis on selected areas and a focus on benefits, China will encourage and support the efforts of domestic enterprises to adopt various models to participate in the construction of railways, highways, telecommunications networks, electric power facilities, regional aviation networks, harbors, water works and other infrastructure projects as well as water resources development and protection in Africa. They will also be encouraged and supported to participate in investment, operation and management of these projects. It will encourage bilateral cooperation in the planning and designing, construction, technical standards, supervision, large equipment utilization, and management and operation of the projects.
China stands for pushing forward infrastructure and industrial development in Africa in a coordinated way, with a focus on intensive operation and economies of scale. It will prioritize support for the construction of infrastructure facilities for special economic zones, industrial parks, science and technology parks, etc., to provide favorable conditions for Africa' s industrial development and China-Africa industrial capacity cooperation. It will facilitate cross-border and cross-regional connectivity in infrastructure to help accelerate the process of African integration.
(4) Strengthening China-Africa financial cooperation
China will give full play to financing platforms and tools, which include preferential loans and other means of policy-based finance, the China-Africa Development Fund, special loans for African small and medium-sized enterprises, the Africa Growing Together Fund, China-Africa industrial cooperation fund, and the BRICS' New Development Bank, and seek innovation in its financial cooperation with Africa. It will support the efforts of Chinese financial institutions to increase exchanges and seek co-financing cooperation with their counterparts in African countries and African regional and global financial and development institutions, and support Chinese and African financial institutions in establishing joint-stock banks based on commercial principles. China will strengthen currency cooperation between the central banks of the two sides, discuss with African countries the arrangements for expanding cross-border local currency settlements and currency swaps, and encourage Chinese and African enterprises to settle their trade and investment in local currencies. It will also support reciprocal establishment of financial institutions, and increase support to financing insurance. China will step up coordination and collaboration with African countries in international financial organizations and mechanisms to improve and reform the current international financial system and increase the representation and voice of developing countries.
(5) Promoting the facilitation of China-Africa trade and investment
China will encourage more African commodities to enter the Chinese market and continue to grant zero-tariff treatment to 97 percent of taxable items from the least developed countries that have established diplomatic relations with China, according to the implementation of exchanged notes by both sides. Both Chinese and African enterprises are encouraged to make the most of harbor advantages to build regional logistics and wholesale centers. China will strengthen quality control of the goods exported to Africa and build more sales channels, reinforce cooperation in inspection and quarantine with African countries, and jointly crack down on counterfeit or substandard import and export goods. China will boost customs cooperation with Africa, increase information exchange, mutual recognition of supervision and mutual assistance with law enforcement, jointly combat commercial fraud and create a law-abiding and convenient trade environment. China will help African countries enhance capacity building in customs, inspection and quarantine, provide support to improve trade facilitation, and help boost trade within Africa. China will continue to support the development of the African Free Trade Zone and regional integration, and discuss the establishment of institutionalized trade arrangements with countries and regional organizations in Africa.
While aligning Africa' s needs with China' s advantages and adhering to the principles of equality, mutual benefit and win-win cooperation, China is committed to improving the quality and efficiency of China-Africa economic and trade cooperation, helping Africa speed up its industrialization and agricultural modernization, and encouraging and supporting the efforts of Chinese enterprises to expand and optimize their investment in areas such as industry, agriculture, infrastructure and energy in Africa. It will continue to provide concessional loans and export credit insurance support to qualified projects and moderately increase the concessionality of its concessional loans.
(6) Bolstering resource and energy cooperation
On the basis of the principles of win-win cooperation, green development, low-carbon emissions and sustainable development, China will expand and deepen mutually beneficial cooperation in resources and energies with African countries. It will help African countries strengthen their capabilities in exploration, development and processing of resources and energies, increase the added value of their primary products, create more local jobs, generate more foreign-exchange income, and turn their resource and energy endowment into achievements in sustainable development and benefits that can be shared by African people. China will innovate on the models of resource and energy cooperation with Africa, and expand whole-industry-chain cooperation in energy and mining sectors. It will support the construction of national or regional power grids in Africa, boost cooperation with Africa in the development of renewable energy and low-carbon, green energy such as wind power, solar power and hydropower, and promote rational development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Africa in order to serve Africa' s industrialization.
(7) Expanding cooperation on the marine economy
China will help fully tap into the abundant marine resources and development potential of relevant African countries and support them in strengthening capacity building, planning, designing, construction and exchange of operation experience in marine fishing, offshore aquaculture, seafood processing, maritime transportation, shipbuilding, construction of harbors and harbor industrial parks, exploration and development of offshore oil and gas reserves, as well as management of the marine environment. It will support the efforts of Chinese and African enterprises to carry out mutually beneficial cooperation in various forms. It will also help African countries develop the marine economy in light of local conditions and explore new areas for Africa' s economic growth and China-Africa cooperation, so that African countries' abundant marine resources can better serve their national development and bring more benefits to their people.
4. Strengthening development cooperation between China and Africa
(1) Continuing to increase development assistance to Africa
As the largest developing country, China has provided assistance to African countries for a long time and will continue to do so within its capability. China has also received support and assistance from African countries in a timely manner whenever it is stricken by a big natural disaster. It stands ready to continue to provide and gradually increase emergency aid and necessary assistance to African countries in a spirit of sharing weal and woe and standing together through thick and thin with the latter. While providing the assistance in light of its own financial capacity and economic situation and the pressing needs of African countries, China sticks to the principles of no political strings attached, non-interference in others' internal affairs and no demands imposed on others. China will come up with innovative assistance models and optimize assistance conditions. China's assistance will be primarily used in the areas of human resources development, infrastructure, medical care and health, agriculture, food security, climate change response, desertification prevention and control, and wildlife and environmental protection, and for humanitarian purposes, with the aim to help African countries alleviate poverty, improve people's livelihoods and build up capacity for independent development.
China will honor its promise to exempt the intergovermental interest-free loans borrowed by the relevant least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing countries in Africa that are not returned when they mature at the end of 2015.
(2) Supporting Africa in strengthening its public health system and capacity building
Drawing on the experience in joint fight against Ebola and malaria, China will deepen and expand health cooperation with Africa. It will strengthen communication with Africa on medical and health policies, and support Africa's efforts to strengthen its public health and disease control and prevention system and capacity building. China will actively participate in the preparation for the establishment of an African Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and assist African countries to improve the level of laboratory technology and deliver training to medical personnel, with a focus on assisting in prevention and control of non-contagious chronic diseases, malaria and other insect-borne infectious diseases, cholera, Ebola, AIDS, tuberculosis, and other preventable infectious diseases and newly emerging diseases. By making full use of its own strengths, China will support, on a priority basis, the efforts of African countries to enhance their core capacity in border health quarantine, build infectious diseases monitoring stations, provide medical services to women and children, and improve the departments and services in the existing medical facilities. China will continue to support African countries in health infrastructure development. It will continue to send medical teams to African countries, launch cooperation between counterpart Chinese and African hospitals, and enhance exchanges and cooperation between modern and traditional medicine with a focus on improving local medical services. It will also continue to promote the "Brightness Action" campaign to provide free cataract operation and other short-term free medical services. China stands for increasing paired exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African medical institutions and drug administration agencies, and supports their cooperation with international and regional organizations such as the World Health Organization and the African Union. It will encourage Chinese pharmaceutical enterprises to invest in Africa in a bid to lower the cost of medicines in Africa and increase the affordability of medical and pharmaceutical products in Africa.
(3) Expanding cooperation in education and human resources development
China will expand cooperation in education with Africa, supporting educational development in the continent. It will provide more input in light of the social and economic development needs of African countries so as to achieve greater results, and help train more much-needed professionals for African countries, in particular, teachers and medical workers. While enhancing exchanges and cooperation between education administration agencies and institutions on both sides, China will continue to implement the "African Talents Program", gradually increase the number of government scholarships for applicants in African countries, and encourage local governments, institutions of higher learning, enterprises and social organizations to set up scholarships. It welcomes more African young people to study in China, encouraging and supporting them to play a bigger role in the pragmatic cooperation between China and Africa. China will encourage colleges and universities on both sides to establish partnerships, support exchanges between Chinese and African teachers and students, and magnify the effect of the 20+20 Cooperation Plan for Chinese and African Institutions of Higher Education. Following the principle of integrating learning and knowledge application, China will scale up cooperation in teacher training and vocational education with African countries with the aim to expand the channels for human resources development.
(4) Sharing and popularizing the experience in poverty alleviation
Poverty is the common challenge confronting China and Africa. China will fulfill its promise to the international community to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It will actively implement the Program for Strengthening China-Africa Cooperation on Poverty Reduction issued by China and the AU, strengthen China-Africa poverty alleviation cooperation, give play to the role of international poverty alleviation platforms such as the International Poverty Reduction Center in China jointly established by China and the United Nations, and encourage and support governments, academic institutions, enterprises and non-governmental organizations on both sides to carry out diverse forms of experience exchanges and pragmatic cooperation on poverty alleviation. These will facilitate the sharing of China's successful experience in achieving large-scale poverty reduction by alleviating rural poverty through development. China will strengthen cooperation on demonstration projects to support African countries in enhancing their capability of independent poverty alleviation and development.
(5) Stepping up science and technology cooperation and knowledge sharing
China will continue to push forward implementation of the China-Africa Science and Technology Partnership Plan, and encourage strengthened science and technology exchanges and cooperation between China and African countries in the fields of agriculture, water resources, energy, aviation and aerospace, telecommunication, environmental protection, desertification prevention and control, medical care and marine sector. It will support African countries in building up their capacity in science and technology, and work with them to set up joint laboratories, joint research centers, and science and technology parks in key areas. It will continue to sponsor outstanding young African scientists to conduct short-term research in China, step up training on applied technology and relevant policies, and jointly establish advanced-technology application and demonstration bases. China will promote the dissemination of China' s science and technology research results and the popularization and application of advanced and applied technology in Africa.
(6) Enhancing cooperation on climate change and environmental protection
China will boost and consolidate cooperation with Africa under the UNFCCC and other relevant mechanisms, and push for both sides to carry out consultations, exchanges and cooperation projects in relation to addressing climate change. China will innovate on cooperation areas, deepen pragmatic cooperation, and work in concert with Africa to enhance the capacity for tackling climate change. China stands for closer policy dialogue, and closer bilateral and multilateral coordination and cooperation with Africa in the area of environment. It calls for strengthened cooperation in education and personnel training on ecological protection, environment management, pollution prevention and control, bio-diversity and water resources conservation, and the prevention and control of desertification, as well as in demonstration projects in these areas. It will push forward environment-friendly industrial capacity cooperation and transfer of applied technology. While enhancing exchanges on environmental protection laws and regulations, China will engage in dialogue and cooperation on the conservation of endangered species of wild fauna and flora, step up intelligence sharing and capacity building in law enforcement, and crack down on transnational organized crimes related to endangered wildlife trafficking. While implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and dealing with other related international affairs, China will strengthen communication and coordinate positions with African countries, in a bid to work together to promote the protection and sustainable exploitation of global wild fauna and flora.
5. Deepening and expanding cultural and people-to-people exchanges
(1) Expanding exchanges and cooperation in culture and sports
China will maintain the momentum of high-level contacts, and implement bilateral cultural cooperation agreements and their implementation plans. Encouraging and supporting African countries for Chinese-language teaching, China will continue to set up more Confucius Institutes in African countries, and encourage and support the opening of Chinese cultural centers in Africa and African cultural centers in China. It will support the holding of the "Year of China" events in Africa and the "Year of an African Country" events in China, raise the profile of the "Chinese/African Cultures in Focus" events, and enrich the program of China-Africa mutual visits between cultural personnel and the China-Africa Cultural Cooperation Partnership Program, with the aim to achieve better results in cultural exchanges. China stands for respect of each other's cultural diversity, and will promote China-Africa cultural inclusiveness and common prosperity, thereby enhancing understanding and friendship between Chinese and African people. In addition to promoting exchanges between cultural institutions and personnels, China will strengthen cooperation with Africa in cultural industry and personnel training.
According to the principle of focusing on key areas and doing things within its capability, China will strengthen exchanges and result-oriented sports cooperation with African countries and continue to provide assistance to support the development of sports in African countries.
(2) Expanding tourism cooperation
China will work with African countries to provide convenience in visa application and other services to facilitate travels by their nationals to their respective countries and regions, support tourism promotion activities in each other's countries and regions, encourage airlines on both sides to open more air routes and operate more flights between China and Africa, and expand personnel exchanges and visits. China welcomes and is willing to give positive consideration to applications of qualified African countries for Approved Destinations Status for outbound Chinese tourist groups, and support Chinese and African enterprises to engage in mutually beneficial cooperation in tourism infrastructure development, thereby improving and optimizing the environment for tourism.
(3) Broadening cooperation on press, radio, film and television
China will push forward diverse forms of exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African media outlets, creating necessary conditions for this purpose and providing guidance and convenience. Dialogue and consultation between relevant government departments will be strengthened for the purpose of deepening media cooperation, enhancing cyberspace management and sharing experience in handling the relations with media, with a priority given to support capacity building of African media. Support will be provided for the sound development of the China-Africa Press Center, with the aim to increase objective and balanced media coverage on the development of China and Africa and on China-Africa relations so as to promote mutual understanding and recognition between Chinese and African people. China will encourage Chinese and African media organizations to step up cooperation in areas such as journalism studies, personnel training, content exchanges and joint news gathering and production, and new media. China will strengthen technological exchanges and industrial cooperation with Africa on radio, film and television, and encourage connection and contacts between Chinese and African radio and TV broadcasters. It will continue to promote the digitization of radio and TV broadcasting in Africa, provide related financing, technical support and personnel training, and encourage Chinese and African enterprises to engage in joint venture cooperation.
(4) Encouraging exchanges between academia and think tanks
China will encourage Chinese and African universities to carry out joint studies to enhance research strengths of both sides. China will actively implement the China-Africa Joint Research and Exchange Plan and the China-Africa Think Tanks 10+10 Partnership Plan. It will support Chinese and African research institutes and think tanks to engage in multi-forms of exchanges and cooperation, such as joint researches, seminars, and publishing of books. Priority support will be given to joint researches and result sharing in areas that are conducive to promoting China-Africa friendly cooperation, such as governance, development paths, industrial capacity cooperation, and comparison of cultures and laws.
(5) Enhancing people-to-people exchanges
China will continue to enhance people-to-people exchanges to increase mutual understanding between Chinese and African people and push forward cooperation on improving people's livelihoods. It encourages the implementation of the Proposals on China-Africa People-to-People Exchanges and Cooperation, China-Africa People-to-People Friendship Action and China-Africa People-to-People Friendship and Partnership Program, and supports non-governmental organizations and social groups to engage in diverse forms of friendly exchanges and public benefit activities.
It will promote exchanges between Chinese and African youths and contacts between Chinese and African government departments for youth affairs and youth organizations of political parties, and promote exchanges between outstanding youths from all walks of life in China and Africa. It will encourage and guide Chinese young volunteers to go to African countries to deliver volunteer services, and engage in poverty alleviation, education assistance and other activities.
China will continue to strengthen exchanges and cooperation with Africa to promote gender equality, deepen exchanges between women's organizations and high-level dialogue on women's issues, maintain good cooperation on multilateral women's affairs, and work with Africa to promote women's cause in China and African countries. It will continue to provide necessary assistance to African countries to benefit women and children, and strengthen cooperation in skills training.
China will engage in exchanges with Africa in such areas as service systems for persons with disabilities and social security policies for them. For this, efforts will be made to step up cooperation in areas including rehabilitation, education, employment, social insurance, and development-oriented poverty reduction.
China will intensify friendly exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African trade unions.
6. Promoting peace and security in Africa
(1) Supporting Africa in realizing peace and security
China supports African countries' efforts in independently resolving their continent's issues in their own way. Based on the principles of respecting the wills of African countries, not interfering in African countries' internal affairs and observing the basic norms governing international relations, China will play a constructive role in maintaining and promoting peace and security in Africa. It will explore means and ways with Chinese characteristics to constructively participate in resolving hot-button issues in Africa and exert a unique impact on and make greater contributions to African peace and security. The Special Representative of the Chinese government on African Affairs will continue to play a contributing part.
China will strengthen dialogue and consultation with African countries and regional organizations on peace and security issues, pursue the principle of securing peace through development and promoting development with peace, and implement the consensus on achieving common, cooperative, comprehensive and sustainable security. It will support the efforts by African countries, the AU and sub-regional organizations to build capabilities in safeguarding peace and stability in Africa, and other relevant efforts. It will implement the Initiative on China-Africa Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Security and continue to provide, within its capabilities, support to Africa for its development of collective security mechanisms such as the African Standby Force and the African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crises.
China will uphold justice and safeguard the common interests of Africa and developing countries in multilateral organizations such as the UN. China attaches great importance to and supports the UN's important role in safeguarding peace and stability in Africa, and will continue to support and expand its participation in the UN's efforts in Africa aimed at maintaining and building peace.
(2) Deepening military cooperation
China will further strengthen military exchanges and cooperation with African countries. It will deepen military-related technological cooperation and carry out joint military training and exercises. China will scale up training of African military personnel according to the needs of the African side, and innovate on the training methods. It will continue to help African countries enhance their capacity building in national defense and peacekeeping to safeguard their own security and regional peace.
(3) Supporting Africa in confronting non-traditional security threats
China will strengthen cooperation with Africa in intelligence sharing and capacity building, and improve capabilities to confront non-traditional security threats together with African countries. It will support the international community's efforts to crack down on piracy, continue to send naval vessels to participate in the missions for maintaining navigation safety in the Gulf of Aden and in waters off the coast of Somalia, and assist African countries in ensuring navigation safety in the Gulf of Guinea.
China will support the efforts of African countries and regional organizations in improving counter-terrorism capabilities and fighting terrorism, and help African countries develop their economy and root out the causes of terrorism, with the aim to safeguard regional security and stability and promote long-term peace and sustainable development in Africa. It will strengthen counter-terrorism exchanges and cooperation with the AU and priority countries in the region.
7. Strengthening exchanges and cooperation in consular, immigration, judicial and police areas
China will support institutional arrangements for the facilitation of personnel exchanges with Africa and guarantee the expansion of friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation and orderly personnel exchanges between the two sides.
China will work with African countries to establish more consular organizations in each other's territory in a planned manner. It will strengthen consular consultation with African countries for both sides to have amicable discussions on urgent problems or issues of common interest in bilateral or multilateral consular relations. China stands for closer exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African immigration departments to fight illegal immigration, supporting African countries to strengthen capacity building in enforcement of immigration-related laws.
China stands ready to promote exchanges and cooperation between Chinese and African judicial and police departments and the two sides may learn from each other in legal system development and judicial reform. It will support the efforts of Africa to strengthen capacity building in riot control, maintenance of stability and law enforcement. It stands for concrete and effective measures by both sides to protect the safety, rights and interests of personnel and organizations from the other side on their own soil.
China will work with African countries to enhance cooperation in judicial assistance and extradition and repatriation of criminal suspects. They will expand cooperation in signing judicial assistance treaties, cracking down on crimes, and pursuing fugitives and recovering criminal proceeds. They will work in concert to crack down on cross-border crimes and ensure the order of and the just and legal rights involved in trade and economic and personnel exchanges. It calls for the two sides to increase communication and cooperation in the areas of jail management, community correction, drug rehabilitation and transfer of convicted persons.
Part IV. FOCAC and Its Follow-up Actions
Since its establishment in 2000, FOCAC has become an important platform for collective dialogue between China and Africa and an effective mechanism for their pragmatic cooperation, thanks to the efforts of both sides. In the past 15 years, China and Africa have co-hosted the Beijing Summit and five ministerial conferences, drawn up a series of important programmatic documents on cooperation, and promoted the implementation of measures supporting African development and deepening the friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation between the two sides, reaping fruitful results.
China and Africa have held dialogues through equal-footed dialogue mechanisms such as the Ministerial Conference, the political consultation between Chinese and African foreign ministers on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly sessions, the Senior Officials Meeting, and the consultation between the Secretariat of the Chinese Follow-up Committee of FOCAC and the African Diplomatic Corps in China, further enhancing mutual understanding and political mutual trust. The forum has served as a platform for all-round pragmatic cooperation, pushing for leapfrog increase in China-Africa trade and mutual investment and promoting mutual benefit and common development. The forum has been a bridge for closer people-to-people exchanges and friendship between China and Africa, promoting bilateral exchanges in all areas, and consolidating and expanding the social and popular support for the friendship between China and African countries. It has helped enhance communication and collaboration between China and African countries in the international arena, facilitating them to work together in safeguarding the overall interests of the two sides and developing countries.
China is willing to work with African countries to enhance the mechanism building of the forum, expand areas and ways of cooperation, enrich mutual cooperation, promote the establishment and improvement of sub-forum mechanisms in the fields of industrialization, agricultural modernization, infrastructure, human resources development, industrial capacity cooperation, finance, science and technology, education, culture, health, poverty reduction, law, locals, youth, women, people-to-people exchanges, think tanks and media, and deepen cooperation in relevant areas. All these are aimed at enabling China-Africa cooperation to be more pragmatic and effective and achieve more tangible results under the framework of the forum, thereby bringing greater benefits to the Chinese and African people.
Part V. China's Relations with African Regional Organizations
China values and supports the AU's leadership in building a united and strong Africa and promoting African integration, its centrality in safeguarding peace and security in Africa, as well as a bigger role for the organization in regional and international affairs. It appreciates and supports the AU's adoption and implementation of Agenda 2063 and its first 10-year plan. The creation of the Mission of the People's Republic of China to the AU in 2014 has taken China-AU relations to a new stage. China is ready to increase high-level exchanges with the AU, give full play to the China-AU strategic dialogue mechanism, and enhance political dialogue and mutual trust. It will promote cooperation with the AU in areas such as development planning, experience sharing in poverty reduction, health, peace and security, and international affairs.
China appreciates the positive role of African sub-regional organizations in promoting peace, stability and development in their respective regions. It stands ready to strengthen friendly exchanges and cooperation with these organizations, and support their capacity-building efforts.
China is eager to establish and improve various dialogue and cooperation mechanisms with the AU and sub-regional organizations in Africa, thereby enhancing China-Africa cooperation at both regional and sub-regional levels in a wide array of fields including political affairs, the economy, trade and culture.